Research & Resources
Dual Language Immersion (DLI) programs have been in existence for several decades. There continues to be a growing number of research studies and program evaluations that look at different aspects of dual language immersion programs. These studies continue to confirm that when implemented appropriately, DLI programs provide academic and language outcomes that are not just positive but transformative to our students.
Below is a list of resources and websites that provide more detailed information about Dual Language Immersion programs:
Books that Detail the Benefits of DLI
- Baker, C. A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism (3rd Ed)
- Baker, C. Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (5th ed.). Bristol, UK; Multilingual Matters (2011)
- Lindholm, Kathy. Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on Dual Language Education by the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. www.ncela.gwu.edu (2000)
- Lindholm-Leary, K.J. (2001) Dual language education. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters
- Zelasco, Nancy and Antunez, Beth. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages by. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
DLI Resources for Educators
- Boyle, A., August, D., Tabaku, L, Cole, S., and Simpson-Baird, A. (2015). Dual Language Education Programs: Current State Policies and Practices. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Available at: https://ncela.ed.gov/files/rcd/TO20_DualLanguageRpt_508.pdf
- Christian, D., Montone, C., Lindholm, K and Carranza, I. Profiles in Two-Way Immersion Education (1997).
- Cloud, N., Genesee, F., Hamayan, E. and Heinle and Heinle. Dual language Instruction - A Handbook for Enriched Education: by. ISBN number = 083848801-3
- Howard, E.R., Lindholm-Leary, K.J., Sugarman, J., Christian, D., & Rogers, D. (2007). Guiding principles for dual language education. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
- Tinajero, Josefina and DeVillar, Robert. The Power of Two Languages 2000: Effective Dual Languages Use Across the Curriculum (eds.) McGraw Hill.
The Benefits of DLI - Articles
- Adesope, Olusola O., Lavin, Tracy, Thompson, Terri and Ungerleider, Charles. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive Correlates of Bilingualism. Review of Educational Research June 2010, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 207–245 DOI: 10.3102/0034654310368803
- Collier, V., & Thomas, W. (2004). The Astounding Effectiveness of Dual Language Education for All. NABE Journal of Research and Practice, 2(1) 1-20. Available at:
- Genesee et al., 2006; Thomas and Collier (2002) ELs and native English speakers in dual immersion programs do as well or better than their peers in other program models
- Genesee et al., 2006; Thomas and Collier, 2002; Snipes, Soga, & Uro, 2007; August & Shanahan (2006) Primary language instruction in EL programs promotes higher level of reading in English.
- Rumbaut, Rubén G., English Plus: Exploring the Socioeconomic Benefits of Bilingualism in Southern California. In Callahan, R.M. & Gándara, P.C., eds., The Bilingual Advantage: Language, Literacy, and the Labor Market. Multilingual Matters: Clevedon, U.K., 2014.
Websites of Interest